WSTS: Timing Security, Resilience and GNSS Issues


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The webinar is now available for on-demand viewing.

You can also download a copy of the presentation slides.

Timing security, also considered “timing assuredness,” is essential for timing as a fundamental enabler across a wide range of industries. Yet timing security faces challenges. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the primary source for UTC across the world, has significant vulnerabilities. Time is also distributed using dedicated timing networks, other free-space radio signals, optical networks and packet-based networks. Each technique depends on a different infrastructure and each has its own unique vulnerabilities.

This Virtual WSTS session addresses these problems and the solutions-oriented work that is addressing them. It features a keynote from Karen Van Dyke, the Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) director of the Department of Transportation on efforts to provide backup systems to GPS in the U.S. The session explores a new White House Executive Order supporting the importance and vulnerability of PNT. Also addressed is the Department of Homeland Security’s work to develop standards for an open architecture integrity framework in GPS, as well as timing services based on GNSS.

10:00 – 10:05 a.m. Timing Security, Resilience and GNSS Issues Overview
Marc Weiss, vWSTS Chair/Time & Frequency Expert Consultant
10:05 – 10:30 a.m. Resilient PNT for Transportation Applications
Karen Van Dyke, Director, Positioning, Navigation, and Timing and Spectrum Management, Department of Transportation
10:30 – 10:35 a.m. Questions
10:35 – 10:40 a.m. Meinberg Sponsor Presentation
Heiko Gerstung, Managing Director, Meinberg
10:40 – 10:55 a.m. Time Security – The Winding Path to Deployment
Karen O’Donoghue, Director, Internet Trust and Technology, Internet Society
10:55 – 11:10 a.m. Secure PTP Using TLS Key Mangement
Doug Arnold, Principal Technologist, Meinberg
11:10 – 11:25 a.m. A Multi-Level Approach for Integrating GNSS Integrity into Critical Timing Applications
Josh Clanton, Principal Engineer, IS4S
David Hodo, Director of Assured PNT, IS4S
11:25 – 11:40 a.m. Timing Services Based on European GNSS Technologies
Andreas Bauch, Research Scientist and Head of Time Dissemination Working Group, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
11:40 – 11:55 a.m. Effect of GNSS Multipath on Timing Receivers
Eleftherios Christos (Akis) Drosinos, Professional Services – Member of the Technical Staff, Spirent Communications
11:55 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Questions



. Karen Van  Dyke
Director, Positioning, Navigation, and Timing and Spectrum Management, Department of Transportation

Karen Van Dyke serves as the Director for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) and Spectrum Management in the U.S. Department of Transportation Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R). Karen has been involved in navigation-related programs at the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center for over 25 years and currently is responsible for overseeing the navigation program and development of policy positions on PNT and spectrum in coordination within the Office of the Secretary of Transportation. Karen received her BS and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Massachusetts at Lowell. She served as the President of the Institute of Navigation (ION) and is a recipient of the Award for Meritorious Achievement (Silver Medal) from the Secretary of Transportation and is a Fellow of the ION. Karen was a collaborator on the book, Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications (first and second editions).

Heiko Gerstung
Managing Director

Heiko Gerstung is Managing Director of Meinberg and joined the company in 2004 as a software engineer. A long, long time ago Heiko studied Information Technology and Business Administration at the University of Applied Arts and Sciences in Hannover, Germany and afterwards worked as head of IT for a regional branch of the German Red Cross and a part of a Swiss group in the chemical industry. After roles in Marketing and International Business Development he has been named Managing Director of Meinberg in 2009, taking over from the founders of the company, the Meinberg brothers. He is author / co-author of several standards covering synchronization of IT systems and their management, participating in IETF and IEEE working groups since 2008.

Karen O’Donoghue
Director, Internet Trust and Technology
Internet Society

Karen O’Donoghue is the Director, Internet Trust and Technology for the Internet Society, a global non-profit organization dedicated to an open, global, secure and trustworthy Internet for everyone. In this role, she supports the development, deployment, and operation of technologies, standards, and best practices to improve the security of the Internet. Karen has a long history of participation in the IETF, IEEE, and other standards bodies, as well as working in small multi-vendor teams to build technology demonstrations and build event networks. Prior to joining the Internet Society, Karen worked for the US Navy, focused on the development and application of commercial network standards and technologies to realtime Navy systems.

Doug Arnold 
Principal Technologist
Meinberg USA

Dr. Arnold has over 15 years experience developing precise time and frequency equipment. He is currently a Principal Technologist with Meinberg USA. He is a Co-Chair of the IEEE 1588 Working Group, and a Co-Chair of the ISPCS IEEE 1588 Plugfest Committee. He holds a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois.

. Josh Clanton
Principal Engineer

Mr. Clanton currently serves as a Principal Engineer at Integrated Solutions for Systems (IS4S) in Auburn, Alabama. He has over 13 years of industry experience in modeling and simulation, navigation algorithm development and prototyping, and laboratory and field analysis of RF-based navigation and communication systems.

David Hodo
Director of Assured PNT

Mr. Hodo is Director of Assured PNT at IS4S developing navigation systems for both manned and unmanned systems. His work focuses on GPS based navigation, collaborative navigation techniques, and navigation integrity. He received a BS and MS in Electrical Engineering from Auburn University.

Andreas Bauch
Research Scientist and Head of Time Dissemination Working Group, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

Andreas Bauch has a Diploma in Physics. He joined Phyikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany (PTB) as a PhD student in 1983, being initially engaged in studies on frequency shifting effects in caesium atomic clocks. In 1986 he got his PhD (Dr. rer. nat.) from Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. Since then he has been always involved in time and frequency metrology, focused at first on the development and operation of atomic clocks, later more and more on time comparison techniques (GNSS, TWSTFT). He became the responsible for PTB’ s Time Unit Laboratory in 1991.Today he is Head of PTB’s Time Dissemination Working Group and as such the management responsible for the operation of PTB’s time dis-semination services. He has served as delegate to the Comité Consultatif du Temps et Fréquences (CCTF) and to Study Group 7 of the International Telecommunication Union. Between 2009 and 2013 he chaired the EURAMET Technical Committee for Time and Frequency. Between 2009 and 2016 he was member of ESA’s GNSS Science Advisory Committee which he chaired between 2012 and 2015. He has authored and co-authored more than 100 papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings.

Akis Drosinos
Professional Services – Member of the Technical Staff
Spirent Communications

Eleftherios Christos (Akis) Drosinos has a Bachelor’s Degree in Telecommunications, in Greece and a Master’s Degree in Wireless Photonics and Space Engineering, from Chalmers University of Technology, in Gothenburg, Sweden. For the past three years Akis has been working for Spirent Communications, a global leader in Satellite simulation, where I have mostly focused on providing customer services. Apart from Space technology, he likes sailing, rowing and climbing.


. Marc Weiss
vWSTS Chair, and Time & Frequency Expert Consultant Expert

Dr. Marc Weiss worked at NIST (the National Institute of Standards and Technology–formerly NBS, the National Bureau of Standards) from 1979, specializing in time transfer techniques and statistics of timing systems, particularly applied to GPS and to telecom systems. He has over 100 publications from his time at NIST. Since January 2014 he is now a contractor for NIST, doing much of the same work. He received the NBS Applied Research Award for a first GPS timing receiver in 1983. He was awarded a patent for the Smart Clock algorithm in 1993, which optimally locks a slave clock to a master. Dr. Weiss won the 2013 NIST William P. Slichter Award, “For pioneering highly productive industry/ government partnerships to advance telecommunications and data networks through precision synchronization.”Marc founded and has led WSTS, the Workshop on Sync and Timing Systems, annually since 1992, now a sister conference to the European version, the ITSF. Dr. Weiss is the NIST co-chair of the Timing subgroup of the NIST Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Public Working Group. Marc co-founded the Time-Aware Applications, Computers and Communications Systems (TAACCS) initiative, and edited the white paper and subsequent NIST Technical Note. In addition, Dr. Weiss has led the NIST program to support the GPS program office in developing their clocks and timing systems since 1980. He has worked on and published Relativity issues as they relate to GPS and to primary frequency standards. He has also specialized in Time-Scale Algorithms. He received his Ph.D. in Mathematical-Physics from the University of Colorado in 1981.

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